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Chair back made of silk, voided velvet with cut and uncut pile, early 19th century (TRC 2011.0368).Chair back made of silk, voided velvet with cut and uncut pile, early 19th century (TRC 2011.0368).Up until the fifteenth century, designs on Italian velvets tended to be small and were regarded as suitable for any type of silk textiles, including velvets. Velvet weavers, for example, were producing small, busy animal designs similar to those on contemporary silks. Small knot designs were also very popular.

But changes were taking place and by the 1430’s a new style of velvet design was evolving, based on plant forms and worked on a much larger scale than previously known, with broader areas of velvet pile (especially using voided velvet forms). These patterns developed into large-scale asymmetrical and symmetrical forms. In addition, another type of velvet design developed that was called ferronnerie, because of its resemblance to ironwork tracery.

One of the most popular large-scale asymmetrical designs were the so-called pomegranate and foliage motifs that became very popular from the 1430’s onwards. The repeat size on these could be about 50 cm or more and several widths of velvet were required to create the final motif.

Another very expensive and popular form of cloth in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries was brocaded velvet (cloth of gold velvet), which included both gold and silver metal threads and velvet techniques. But the height of luxury for many clients were velvets woven with their coat of arms or personal badges. These commissioned velvets were produced in both Italy and Spain for royal courts, nobles and churches throughout Europe.

Black velvet bathmat, with an embroidered design of peacocks. Iran, late-20th century (TRC 1999.0266).Black velvet bathmat, with an embroidered design of peacocks. Iran, late-20th century (TRC 1999.0266).Changes in fashion and taste meant that by the seventeenth century velvets were becoming much lighter in weight and the designs started to become much smaller and the repeat distance much shorter.

A feature of nineteenth century and later velvet patterns, in general, is that weavers often copy earlier designs, but using ‘modern’ equipment. It is possible, therefore, to find copies of fifteenth century Spanish motifs produced in nineteenth century Italy and France. This makes the dating of velvets more complicated! The same process of copying older motifs continues to the present day and such velvets are often used to restore the appearance of, for example, a seventeenth century room, or to replace well-loved wall hangings.

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, a wide range of designs started to be produced using the jacquard loom, which was quicker to weave cloth and could include more complicated designs, especially in the background. The motifs chosen reflected current tastes, such as the Neo-Gothic forms, or the Arts and Crafts motifs of the 1880’s and later. The latter can be seen in the velvet hangings in the Tweede Kamer of the Dutch Parliament buildings in The Hague. These include the so-called sunflower motifs that are now regarded as a typical Dutch velvet form.

Similarly, the Art Décor movement of the 1920’s and 1930’s created a wide range of geometric designs that reflected architectural forms, paintings, as well as other forms of textiles.

By the end of the twentieth century the developments in modern computer driven looms has meant that virtually any type of design can be produced using velvet weaving techniques.



Velvet: A luxurious textile in the TRC spotlights

A brief history of velvet

The raw materials

The production of velvet

The main types of velvet

Classic velvet designs

Clothing and velvets

Furnishing velvets

Some alternative velvets


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TRC Gallery exhibition:
5 Febr. -27 August 2020: American Quilts

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